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Book Cover
E-book
Author Voorde, M. H. van de (Marcel H.), author

Title Nanotechnology in a nutshell : from simple to complex systems / by Marcel van de Voorde, Christian Ngo
Published Paris : Atlantis, 2013
Table of Contents
 Part I Exploring and Working in the Nanoworld 
1.Seeing and Moving Atoms3
1.1.Atoms Can Be Seen3
1.2.Atoms Can Be Moved8
1.3.Microscopy9
1.3.1.Transmission Electron Microscopy10
1.4.Synchrotron and Neutron Facilities13
1.4.1.Synchrotron Radiation15
1.4.2.Neutron Probes18
1.5.Conclusion22
2.Making Nano-Objects23
2.1.The Top-Down Approach24
2.1.1.Photoresists25
2.1.2.e-Beam Lithography27
2.1.3.Block Copolymer Nanolithography28
2.1.4.Pen Nanolithography29
2.2.On-Wire Lithography30
2.2.1.Nanoimprint Lithography31
2.3.Nanochemistry32
2.4.Langmuir-Blodgett Films33
2.5.Self-assembled Monolayers34
2.6.Conclusion36
3.Quantum and Mesoscopic Physics37
3.1.Quantum Mechanics37
3.1.1.Postulates of Quantum Mechanics38
3.1.2.Measurement40
3.1.3.Quantization41
3.1.4.Uncertainty Principle42
3.1.5.Spin43
3.1.6.Quantum Numbers43
3.1.7.Quantum Tunneling45
3.1.8.Bosons and Fermions45
3.2.Mesoscopic Physics46
3.3.Conclusion48
 Part II Nanomaterials 
4.Nanomaterials: Doing More with Less55
4.1.Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches56
4.1.1.Top-Down Approaches56
4.1.2.Bottom-Up Approach56
4.1.3.Two Approaches with the Same Goal57
4.1.4.The Nanobulk Stage (10-15 years)58
4.1.5.The Nanoworld Stage (15-40 years)59
4.2.Nanostructuration61
4.3.Classifying Nanostructured Materials62
4.4.Nanostructured Materials64
4.4.1.Nanocrystalline Materials66
4.4.2.Dendrimers67
4.4.3.Metal Organic Frameworks68
4.4.4.Nanocomposites69
5.New Forms of Carbon and New Opportunities71
5.1.New Forms of Carbon71
5.1.1.Buckyballs71
5.1.2.Nanotubes73
5.1.3.Graphene75
5.2.Applications77
5.2.1.Buckyballs77
5.2.2.Carbon Nanotubes79
5.2.3.Graphene83
6.Nanoengineering for Material Technology85
6.1.Structural Nanomaterials86
6.1.1.Metallic Materials88
6.1.2.Ceramic Materials88
6.1.3.Polymers90
6.1.4.Nanostructured Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials91
6.1.5.Engineering with Nanostructural Materials91
6.2.Functional Nanomaterials92
6.2.1.Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanomaterials93
6.2.2.Nanostructured Composites94
6.2.3.Asymmetric Nanoheterostructures96
6.2.4.From Smart to Intelligent Coatings/Surfaces96
6.2.5.Intelligent Nanomaterials Systems99
6.3.Biomaterials100
 Part III Nanotechnology for Information and Communication Technologies 
7.From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics109
7.1.Shrinking the Components109
7.2.Moore's Law110
7.3.Smart Systems111
7.4.Transistors112
7.5.Smaller, Faster, Cheaper114
7.6.Limiting Issues117
7.7.Memories117
7.7.1.More and More Storage Capacities118
7.7.2.New Memory Technologies120
7.8.Displays124
8.Major Trends in Nanoelectronics127
8.1.More Moore127
8.2.More than Moore131
8.3.Heterogeneous Integration133
8.4.Beyond CMOS134
9.Emerging Quantum Devices139
9.1.Beyond the Quantum Wall140
9.2.Coulomb Blockade140
9.3.The Single Electron Transistor145
9.4.Applications of Single Electron Transistors146
9.5.Quantum Dots147
9.6.Spintronics149
9.7.Quantum Computing153
9.8.Nanophotonics154
9.8.1.Controlling Light155
9.8.2.Photonic Crystals156
9.8.3.Plasmonics160
9.8.4.Metamaterials162
10.Molecular Electronics165
10.1.Electronic Conduction167
10.2.The Electrodes170
10.3.Nanowires170
10.4.Molecular Diode172
10.5.3-Terminal Device173
10.6.Conducting Polymers173
10.7.Oligomers174
10.8.Polymer Conduction175
10.9.Self-assembled Monolayers176
10.10.Conclusion177
 Part IV Healthcare 
11.Diagnostics189
11.1.Diagnosis and Imaging191
11.2.From Biochips to Cells-on-Chips195
11.2.1.A Need for Biosensors195
11.2.2.Biochips196
11.2.3.Labs-on-Chips199
11.2.4.Cells-on-Chips203
11.3.Conclusion206
12.Therapeutics and Regenerative Medicine209
12.1.Therapeutics209
12.1.1.Improved Drug Delivery209
12.1.2.Delivery Routes212
12.2.Regenerative Medicine217
12.2.1.The Quest for Biomaterials218
12.2.2.Biomimetics219
12.2.3.Cell Therapy219
12.2.4.Implants220
12.2.5.Nanotechnology in Surgery223
12.2.6.Wound Dressing and Smart Textiles224
12.3.Nanotechnology in Dentistry224
12.3.1.Nanomaterials for Prevention of Caries225
12.3.2.Materials for Tooth Repair and Restoration226
12.3.3.Engineering Dental Implants226
12.3.4.Reconstruction of Hard and Soft Periodontal Tissues227
12.3.5.Engineering Tooth Development228
12.3.6.Salivary and Respiratory Diagnostics228
12.3.7.Conclusion228
12.4.Nanopharmacology229
12.5.Conclusion231
13.Nanotechnologies in Agriculture and Food233
13.1.Agricultural Production233
13.2.Food Processing236
13.3.Packaging239
13.4.Distribution and Transportation242
13.5.Food Safety244
13.6.Conclusion245
 Part V Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering 
14.Sensors for Measuring and Monitoring255
14.1.NEMS Technology Development and Applications255
14.2.Nanotechnologies for Detection and Monitoring257
14.3.Overview of the Possibilities for Nanosensors259
14.3.1.Health Care260
14.3.2.Clothing Industry261
14.3.3.Sensors in the Automotive Industry261
14.3.4.Oil and Gas Exploitation261
14.3.5.Security261
14.3.6.Smart Structures262
14.3.7.Sensors for Environmental Monitoring263
14.3.8.Food Science264
14.3.9.Environmental Pollution264
14.3.10.Farming Industry265
14.4.Conclusion266
15.Nanotechnology Applications for Air and Soil267
15.1.Nanotechnology for Air Purification (Artificial Environment Hazards)267
15.2.Aerosols Nanoparticles268
15.3.Aerosols Nanoparticles and Climate Change271
15.4.Soil Remediation280
15.5.Conclusion281
16.Water Demands for Nanotechnology283
16.1.Nanotechnology Opportunities284
16.2.Nanofiltration and Membrane Processes285
16.3.Nanostructured Ceramic Membranes285
16.4.Photocatalysis: Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Membranes287
16.5.Adsorption Mechanism287
16.6.Nanosensors in Water Analysis288
16.7.Removal of Nanoparticles Used in the Purification Process288
16.8.Conclusion289
 Part VI Nanotechnology and Daily Life 
17.Products for the Home of the Future295
17.1.Household Innovation295
17.1.1.Cleaning and Cleanliness295
17.1.2.An Energy-Efficient Home297
17.1.3.Sport and Nanotechnology299
17.2.Personal Hygiene299
17.2.1.Nanotechnology and Textiles301
17.3.Healthcare301
17.3.1.Vaccination and Drug Delivery301
17.3.2.Sunscreens and Skin Protection302
17.3.3.Nanoatomizer305
17.4.Nanofoodstuffs305
17.4.1.Food and Nanotechnology306
17.4.2.Packaging308
17.4.3.Drinks308
17.5.Conclusion309
18.Nanomaterials and Cosmetics311
18.1.Sunscreens312
18.2.Cosmetics Delivery313
18.3.Safety Aspects of Cosmetics317
18.4.Conclusion319
19.Nanotechnology for the Textile Industry321
19.1.Toward New Textiles321
19.1.1.Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites321
19.1.2.Self-cleaning and Dirt-Free Textiles322
19.1.3.Medical Textiles323
19.1.4.Security, Safety, and Military Textiles324
19.1.5.Textiles for Automotive Applications324
19.1.6.Smart Textiles325
19.2.Finishing Treatments326
19.3.Conclusion328
 Part VII Energy and Nanotechnology 
20.Nanotechnology and the Energy Challenge337
20.1.The Energy Challenge337
20.2.Nanotechnology and Fossil Fuels339
20.2.1.Petroleum Refining339
20.2.2.Syngas341
20.3.Nanotechnology and Renewable Energies342
20.3.1.Solar Energy343
20.3.2.Nanostructured Photovoltaics345
20.3.3.Wind Energy346
20.3.4.Thermoelectricity346
20.4.Energy Vectors347
20.4.1.Electricity347
20.4.2.Hydrogen349
20.5.Energy Storage351
20.5.1.Electrochemical Storage351
20.5.2.Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage352
20.6.Smart Energy Consumption352
20.7.Conclusion354
21.Housing357
21.1.Nanotechnology in Construction Engineering357
21.1.1.Potential for Nanoconcrete Materials360
21.1.2.Nanocements and Concrete Developments360
21.1.3.Smart Materials: Building Materials with Multiple Benefits363
21.1.4.Nanofillers in Construction Engineering365
21.1.5.Textiles in Construction366
21.1.6.Technical Ceramic Materials366
21.2.Nanotechnology Inside Housing367
21.2.1.Insulation368
21.2.2.Nanoporous Materials368
21.2.3.Radiation Insulation370
21.2.4.Windows371
21.3.Nanocoatings372
21.3.1.Self-cleaning373
21.3.2.Nanoprotection374
21.4.Conclusion375
22.Road Transport377
22.1.Improving Mobility377
22.2.New Functionalities378
22.3.Outside a Car380
22.3.1.Body Parts380
22.3.2.Tires380
22.3.3.Gluing381
22.3.4.Car Protection381
22.3.5.Windows and Optics382
22.4.Inside a Car383
22.4.1.Nanofilters383
22.4.2.Nano-Enabled Automotive Textiles>383
22.4.3.Self-cleaning384
22.5.Power Train384
22.5.1.Improving Combustion384
22.5.2.Exhaust Emissions385
22.5.3.Switchable Materials385
22.5.4.Supercapacitors385
22.5.5.Batteries385
22.5.6.Fuel Cells386
22.6.Conclusion386
 Part VIII Nanotechnology in Industry, Defense, and Security 
23.Nanomaterials in Industrial Application393
23.1.Electronics, Information, and Communication393
23.2.Materials394
23.3.High-Value Industries394
23.4.Manufacturing and Processing Industries396
23.5.Meeting Food and Water Demand397
23.6.Energy397
23.7.Security397
23.8.Consumer Products399
23.9.HealthCare Industries399
23.10.Magnetic Nanopaper400
23.11.NanoAdhesives401
23.12.Conclusion402
24.Nanocatalysts: Fascinating Opportunities403
24.1.What Is a Catalyst?403
24.2.Catalysis and Nanoscience405
24.3.Catalysis Engineering407
24.4.What Can Emerge from the Nanoscience of Catalysis?409
24.5.Conclusion410
25.Nanotechnology for Defense and Security413
25.1.Detection413
25.1.1.Chemical Detection414
25.1.2.Biological Detection416
25.1.3.Radiological and Nuclear Weapons416
25.1.4.Explosives417
25.1.5.Narcotics418
25.1.6.Counterfeiting419
25.2.Response419
25.2.1.Prompt Response419
25.2.2.Decontamination421
25.2.3.Forensics421
25.3.Protection423
25.3.1.Protection of people423
25.3.2.Protection of Infrastructure and Equipment424
25.3.3.Anti-counterfeiting425
25.3.4.Authentication425
25.3.5.Identification426
25.4.Nanotechnology and Military Applications426
25.4.1.Military and Dual Nanotechnology Applications426
25.4.2.Nanotechnology for Human Beings428
25.4.3.Mobility430
25.4.4.Weapons431
25.5.Conclusion431
 Part IX Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Risks for Society 
26.Risks and Toxicity of Nanoparticles439
26.1.Risks and Hazards439
26.2.Engineered Nanoparticles and Human Health442
26.3.Toxicity and Risks444
26.4.Conclusion447
27.Protection of Society and Economical Aspects449
27.1.Nanomaterials Technology: Safety and Security for the Protection of Society449
27.1.1.Nanosafety Applications449
27.1.2.Protection Technologies451
27.1.3.Nanoelectronics: Energy Source452
27.1.4.Industrial Challenges452
27.2.Business Aspects and Marketing of Nanotechnologies454
27.3.Conclusion456
28.Social Impact of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: A Perspective459
28.1.Great Challenges, Promises, and Benefits of Nanomaterials Science and Technology460
28.2.Positive Effects and Social Benefits of Micro and Nanotechnologies461
28.3.Societal Acceptance of Micro and Nanotechnology Innovation462
28.4.Uncertainties, Risks, Incidental Concerns, and Societal Implications of Nanomaterials464
28.4.1.Uncertainties464
28.4.2.Relevant Existing Regulatory Standards for Safety464
28.5.Strategies for Improving Governance Practices Associated with Nanotechnologies465
28.6.Conclusion466
 Part X Outlook 
29.Outlook473
29.1.Nano-Objects474
29.2.Nanomaterials476
29.3.Nanotechnology in the Home478
29.4.Nanotechnology in the Industry479
29.5.Nanoelectronics480
29.6.Human Health and Aging482
29.7.Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture484
29.8.Secure, Clean, and Efficient Energy485
29.9.Smart, Green, and Integrated Transport486
29.10.Resource Efficiency and Climate Change Action487
29.11.Inclusive, Innovative, and Secure Societies488
29.12.Cleaning and Purification488
29.13.Summary489
 Bibliography491
 Index495
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Contents Exploring and Working in the Nano world -- Seeing and Moving Atoms -- Making Nano-Objects -- Quantum and Mesoscopic Physics -- Nanomaterials: Doing More with Less -- New Forms of Carbon and New Opportunities -- Nanoengineering for Material Technology -- From Microelectronics to Nano electronics -- Major Trends in Nano electronics -- Emerging Quantum Devices -- Molecular Electronics -- Diagnostics -- Therapeutics and Regenerative Medicine -- Nanotechnologies in Agriculture and Food -- Sensors for Measuring and Monitoring -- Nanotechnology Applications for Air, Water and Soil -- Water Demands for Nanotechnology -- Products for the Home of the Future -- Nanomaterials and Cosmetics -- Nanotechnology for the Textile Industry -- Nano technology and the Energy Challenge -- Housing -- Road Transport -- Nanomaterials in Industrial Application -- Nano catalysts: Fascinating Opportunities -- Nanotechnology for Defence and Security -- Risks and Toxicity of Nanoparticles -- Protection of Society and Economical Aspects -- Social Impact of Nanoscience and Nano technology -- Outlook
Summary A new high-level book for professionals from Atlantis Press providing an overview of nanotechnologies now and their applications in a broad variety of fields, including information and communication technologies, environmental sciences and engineering, societal life, and medicine, with provision of customized treatments. The book shows where nanotechnology is now - a fascinating time when the science is transitioning into complex systems with impact on new products. Present and future developments are addressed, as well as a larger number of new industrial and research opportunities deriving from this domain. An overview for professionals, researchers and policy-makers of this very rapidly expanding field. Brief chapters and colour figures with a contained overall length make the book attractive at an attractive price - a must for every professionals shelf. Mihail C. Roco, National Science Foundation and National Nanotechnology Initiative, wrote the preface underlying the importance and weight of the present book to this exciting and epoch-awakening field of research and applications: Nanotechnology is well recognized as a science and technology megatrend for the beginning of the 21st century. This book aims to show where nanotechnology is now - transitioning to complex systems and fundamentally new products - and communicates the societal promise of nanotechnology to specialists and the public. Most of what has already made it into the marketplace is in the form of First Generation products, passive nanostructures with steady behaviour. Many companies have Second Generation products, active nanostructures with changing behaviour during use, and embryonic Third Generation products, including 3-dimensional nanosystems. Concepts for Fourth Generation products, including heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, are only in research
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record
Subject Nanotechnology.
Form Electronic book
Author NgĂ´, Christian, author
ISBN 9462390126 (electronic bk.)
9789462390126 (electronic bk.)