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Book Cover
E-book
Author Law, Edith L. M. (Edith Lok Man), 1977-

Title Human computation / Edith Law and Luis von Ahn
Published [San Rafael, Calif.] : Morgan & Claypool Publishers, [2011]
©2011
Online access available from:
Synthesis Digital Library    View Resource Record  

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Description 1 online resource (xi, 105 pages) : illustrations
Series Synthesis lectures on artificial intelligence and machine learning, 1939-4616 ; #13
Synthesis lectures on artificial intelligence and machine learning ; #13
Contents Preface -- Acknowledgments
1. Introduction -- 1.1 Computation: now and then -- 1.2 What is human computation? -- 1.2.1 Explicit control -- 1.3 Tackling AI problems: from vision to biology -- 1.3.1 A matter of perception -- 1.3.2 The language barrier -- 1.3.3 Intuition into computationally intensive problems -- 1.4 Overview
3. Aggregating outputs -- 3.1 Objective versus cultural truth -- 3.2 Classification -- 3.2.1 Latent class models -- 3.2.2 Learning from imperfect data -- 3.3 Beyond classification -- 3.3.1 Ranking and voting -- 3.3.2 Clustering -- 3.3.3 Structured outputs -- 3.3.4 Beliefs -- 3.4 Summary
4. Task routing -- 4.1 Push versus pull approaches -- 4.2 Push approach -- 4.2.1 Allocation -- 4.2.2 Matching -- 4.2.3 Inference -- 4.3 Pull approacH -- 4.3.1 Search and visualization -- 4.3.2 Task recommendation -- 4.3.3 Peer routing -- 4.4 Evaluation criteria -- 4.5 Summary
6. The art of asking questions -- 6.1 Designing tasks -- 6.1.1 Information -- 6.1.2 Granularity -- 6.1.3 Independence -- 6.1.4 Incentives -- 6.1.5 Quality control -- 6.2 Eliciting truthful responses -- 6.2.1 Human computation games -- 6.2.2 Leveraging communication -- 6.2.3 Explicitly preventing bad outputs -- 6.2.4 A brief survey of games and mechanisms -- 6.3 Summary -- Part III. Conclusion
7. The future of human computation -- 7.1 Research directions -- 7.1.1 Interweaving human and machine intelligence -- 7.1.2 Fostering long-term relationships -- 7.1.3 Designing organizations and task markets -- 7.2 Conclusion
Bibliography -- Authors' biographies
Part I. Solving computational problems -- 2. Human computation algorithms -- 2.1 A definition of algorithms -- 2.2 Building blocks of algorithms -- 2.2.1 Operations, controls and program synthesis -- 2.3 Programming frameworks -- 2.4 Evaluating human computation algorithms -- 2.4.1 Correctness -- 2.4.2 Efficiency -- 2.5 Summary
Part II. Design -- 5. Understanding workers and requesters -- 5.1 Markets -- 5.1.1 Mechanical Turk and paid crowdsourcing -- 5.1.2 Security and access -- 5.1.3 Gamers -- 5.1.4 Citizen science -- 5.1.5 Learners -- 5.1.6 Temporary markets -- 5.2 Supporting end users -- 5.2.1 Workers -- 5.2.2 Requesters -- 5.3 Summary
Summary Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoyable game. Crowdsourcing marketplaces (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk) are human computation systems that coordinate workers to perform tasks in exchange for monetary rewards. In identity verification tasks, users perform computation in order to gain access to some online content; an example is reCAPTCHA, which leverages millions of users who solve CAPTCHAs every day to correct words in books that optical character recognition (OCR) programs fail to recognize with certainty. This book is aimed at achieving four goals: (1) defining human computation as a research area; (2) providing a comprehensive review of existing work; (3) drawing connections to a wide variety of disciplines, including AI, Machine Learning, HCI, Mechanism/Market Design and Psychology, and capturing their unique perspectives on the core research questions in human computation; and (4) suggesting promising research directions for the future
Analysis Human-in-the-loop algorithms Output aggregation Active learning Latent class models Task routing Games with a purpose Crowdsourcing
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 77-103)
Subject Human computation.
Form Electronic book
Author Von Ahn, Luis.
ISBN 1608455165
1608455173 (electronic bk.)
9781608455164
9781608455171 (electronic bk.)