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Author Dean, John R., author

Title Environmental trace analysis : techniques and applications / John R. Dean
Published Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom : Wiley, 2014
Table of Contents
 About the Authorxv
 Prefacexvii
 Acknowledgementsxix
 Acronyms and Abbreviationsxxi
1.Basic Laboratory Procedures1
1.1.Introduction1
1.2.Health and Safety Issues2
1.3.Sample Handling: Solid Samples4
1.4.Sample Handling: Liquid Samples4
1.5.Sample Handling: Gases/Vapour Samples5
1.6.Summary5
 Further Reading5
2.Investigative Approach for Environmental Analysis7
2.1.Introduction7
2.2.Recording of Practical Results7
2.2.1.Useful Tips on Presenting Data in Tables8
2.2.2.Useful Tips on Presenting Data in Graphical Form9
2.2.3.Useful Tips for Templates for Presenting Data in Your Notebook9
2.3.Significant Figures9
2.4.Units12
2.5.Summary13
 Appendix14
Example Template A Sample Collection14
Example Template B Sample Treatment14
Example Template C Sample Preparation for Inorganic Analysis15
Example Template D Instrumental Analysis17
Example Template E Sample Preparation for Organic Analysis18
Example Template F Instrumental Analysis20
 Further Reading20
3.Principles of Quantitative Environmental Analysis21
3.1.Introduction21
3.2.Preparing Solutions for Quantitative Work23
3.3.Calibration Graphs24
3.4.Limits of Detection/Quantitation27
3.5.Calculations: Dilution or Concentration Factors27
3.6.Quality Assurance29
3.6.1.Certified Reference Materials30
3.7.Summary36
 References36
 Further Reading36
4.Environmental Sampling37
4.1.Introduction37
4.2.Sampling Soil (and Sediments)39
4.3.Sampling Water40
4.4.Sampling Air42
4.5.Summary44
 Further Reading44
5.Storage of Samples for Analysis45
5.1.Introduction45
5.2.Choice of Storage Container for Liquid Samples45
5.3.Preservation Techniques for Liquid Samples47
5.4.Storage and Preservation of Solid Samples48
5.5.Storage and Preservation of Gaseous Samples48
5.6.Summary50
 Further Reading50
6.Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples for Inorganic Analysis51
6.1.Introduction51
6.2.Decomposition Techniques53
6.3.Selective Extraction Methods64
6.3.1.Single Extraction Methods64
6.3.2.Sequential Extraction Method67
6.3.3.Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions (CISED) Method69
6.4.Physiologically-Based Extraction Test or In Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction70
6.4.1.Procedure for Gastric Extraction71
6.4.2.Procedure for Gastric + Intestinal Extraction72
6.5.Earthworms72
6.5.1.Procedure for Earthworm Bioaccumulation Studies (Sandoval et al., 2001)74
6.6.Summary75
Appendix A Extraction Reagents for Single Extraction Methods75
Appendix B Extraction Reagents for Sequential Extraction Method77
Appendix C Extraction Reagents for In Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Using the Unified Bioaccessibility Method (and the FOREhST Method)77
 References79
 Further Reading80
7.Preparation of Environmental Liquid Samples for Inorganic Analysis81
7.1.Introduction81
7.2.Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Metals82
7.2.1.Procedure for APDC Extraction into MIBK82
7.3.Ion Exchange83
7.3.1.Chelation Ion Exchange83
7.3.2.Procedure for Batch Ion Exchange Extraction83
7.4.Co-precipitation84
7.5.Summary84
 References84
 Further Reading84
8.Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples for Organic Analysis85
8.1.Introduction85
8.2.Liquid-Solid Extraction85
8.2.1.Soxhlet Extraction86
8.2.2.Soxtec Extraction87
8.2.3.Shake Flask Extraction89
8.2.4.Ultrasonic Extraction90
8.3.Pressurised Fluid Extraction91
8.3.1.Instrumentation91
8.3.2.In Situ Clean-up or Selective PFE97
8.3.3.Procedure for Pressurised Fluid Extraction99
8.4.Micro wave-Assisted Extraction100
8.4.1.Instrumentation100
8.4.2.Procedure for Microwave-Assisted Extraction103
8.5.Supercritical Fluid Extraction103
8.5.1.Instrumentation105
8.5.2.Procedure for Supercritical Fluid Extraction106
8.6.Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion107
8.7.Physiologically-Based Extraction Test or In Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction108
8.7.1.Procedure for Gastric + Intestinal Extraction109
8.8.A Comparison of Extraction Techniques109
8.9.Summary112
Appendix A Suppliers of Instrumental Techniques112
Appendix B Extraction Reagents for In Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Using the FOREhST Method (and the Unified Bioaccessibility Method)112
 Preparation of Simulated Saliva Fluid112
 Preparation of Simulated Gastric Fluid113
 Preparation of Simulated Duodenal Fluid113
 Preparation of Simulated Bile Fluid114
 References114
 Further Reading114
9.Preparation of Environmental Liquid Samples for Organic Analysis115
9.1.Introduction115
9.2.Liquid-Liquid Extraction116
9.2.1.Procedure for Discontinuous Extraction117
9.2.2.Procedure for Continuous Extraction119
9.2.3.An Issue in Liquid-Liquid Extraction119
9.3.Solid Phase Extraction120
9.3.1.Procedure for Solid Phase Extraction127
9.4.Purge and Trap Extraction127
9.4.1.Procedure for Purge and Trap Extraction127
9.5.Headspace Extraction128
9.5.1.Procedures for Headspace Sampling131
9.5.2.Main Issues in Static Headspace (SHS) Analysis131
9.5.3.Main Issues in Dynamic Headspace (DHS) Analysis132
9.6.Solid Phase Microextraction132
9.6.1.Procedure for Solid Phase Microextraction134
9.6.2.Main Issues in Solid Phase Microextraction135
9.7.Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction135
9.7.1.Main Issues in Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction136
9.8.Microextraction in a Packed Syringe137
9.8.1.Procedure for Microextraction in a Packed Syringe137
9.8.2.Main Issues in Microextraction in a Packed Syringe138
9.9.Liquid Phase Microextraction139
9.9.1.Main Issues in Single Drop Microextraction140
9.10.Membrane Extraction140
9.10.1.Semi-Permeable Membrane140
9.10.2.Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler141
9.10.3.Chemcatcher141
9.10.4.Ceramic Dosimeter143
9.10.5.Membrane Enclosed-Sorptive Coating143
9.11.A Comparison of Extraction Techniques143
9.12.Summary143
 References143
 Further Reading144
10.Preparation of Environmental Air Samples for Organic Analysis145
10.1.Introduction145
10.2.Thermal Desorption147
10.2.1.Procedure for Thermal Desorption148
10.3.Summary148
 Further Reading148
11.Pre-concentration and Clean-up Procedures for Organic Sample Extracts149
11.1.Introduction149
11.2.Methods for Solvent Evaporation149
11.3.Sample Extract Clean-up Procedures151
11.3.1.Column Chromatography152
11.3.2.Acid-Alkaline Partition153
11.3.3.Acetonitrile-Hexane Partition154
11.3.4.Sulfur Clean-up154
11.3.5.Alkaline Decomposition154
11.4.Summary154
 Further Reading155
12.Instrumental Techniques for Environmental Trace Analysis157
12.1.Introduction157
12.2.Environmental Inorganic Analysis157
12.2.1.Atomic Spectroscopy157
12.2.2.Inorganic Mass Spectrometry168
12.2.3.X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy173
12.2.4.Other Techniques for Environmental Inorganic Analysis175
12.3.Environmental Organic Analysis176
12.3.1.Gas Chromatography176
12.3.2.High Performance Liquid Chromatography182
12.4.Other Techniques for Environmental Organic Analysis188
12.5.Portable Techniques for Field Measurements189
12.6.Summary195
 Further Reading195
 Portable Techniques196
13.Selected Case Studies197
13.1.Introduction197
13.2.Total Analysis of Metals from Soils197
13.3.Single Extraction of Metals from Soils199
13.4.Sequential Extraction of Metals from Soils201
13.5.Oral Bioaccessibility Testing of Metals from Soils204
13.6.Pressurised Fluid Extraction of Organic Compounds from Soils206
13.7.Solid Phase Extraction of Organic Compounds from Liquid Samples210
13.8.Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction of Organic Compounds211
13.9.Dynamic Headspace Analysis of Organic Compounds215
13.10.An Environmental Case Study: From Site to Analysis to Data Interpretation and Contextualisation217
13.10.1.Preliminary Risk Assessment219
13.10.2.Generic Quantitative Risk Assessment (GQRA) (Stanger, 2004)225
13.10.3.Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment (DQRA)231
13.10.4.Remediation232
13.11.Summary232
 References237
14.Some Numerical Worked Examples239
14.1.Introduction239
 Index251
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Description 1 online resource
Summary "The book covers all aspects of environmental trace analysis from sampling through to preparation of the sample to the analytical techniques used to quantify the level of trace metals or organic compounds"-- Provided by publisher
"This book covers all aspects of environmental trace analysis from sampling through to preparation of the sample to the analytical techniques used to quantify the level of trace metals or organic compounds. The book is divided into two areas: sample preparation for inorganic analysis and sample preparation for organic analysis. This allows the reader to focus on key aspects related to the preparation of samples for their subsequent analysis. Selected case studies provide the reader with the opportunity to consider how the sample preparation approach can be optimized for their own area of expertise"-- Provided by publisher
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record and CIP data provided by publisher
Subject Environmental chemistry -- Methodology.
Sampling.
Trace analysis -- Methodology.
Form Electronic book
LC no. 2013028463
ISBN 1118682793 (Adobe PDF)
111868284X (ePub)
1118683420 (electronic bk.)
1119962706 (hardback)
1119962714 (paper)
9781118682791 (Adobe PDF)
9781118682845 (ePub)
9781118683422 (electronic bk.)
9781119962700 (hardback)
9781119962717 (paper)
(hardback)