Book Cover
Author Enderle, John D. (John Denis)

Title Models of horizontal eye movements. Part I, Early models of saccades and smooth pursuit / John D. Enderle
Published Cham, Switzerland : Springer, ©2010
Online access available from:
Synthesis Digital Library    View Resource Record  


Description 1 online resource (x, 151 pages) : illustrations
Series Synthesis lectures on biomedical engineering, 1930-0336 ; # 34
Synthesis lectures on biomedical engineering ; # 34.
Contents 1. Introduction -- Introduction -- Saccades -- Smooth pursuit system -- Vestibular ocular reflex eye movements -- Optokinetic eye movements -- Vergence
2. Smooth pursuit models -- Introduction -- A simple model of the smooth pursuit system -- A simple model without a time delay -- A simple model with a transport delay -- More complex models of the smooth pursuit system -- Bahill model
3. Early models of the horizontal saccadic eye movement system -- Introduction -- Westheimer saccadic eye movement model -- Westheimer's time to peak overshoot -- Westheimers maximum velocity -- Robinson model saccadic eye movement model -- Development of an oculomotor muscle model and the oculomotor plant -- Muscle model passive elasticity -- Active state tension generator -- Elasticity -- Force-velocity relationship -- Muscle model -- Passive tissues of the eyeball -- Activation and deactivation time constants -- 1976 nonlinear reciprocal innervation saccade model -- Parameters for the nonlinear reciprocal innervation model -- 1984 linear reciprocal innervation oculomotor model -- Methods -- System identification and validation -- Time optimal control of saccadic eye movements
4. Velocity and acceleration estimation -- Introduction -- Two-point central difference method -- Frequency characteristics -- Band-limited differentiation filter -- Median differentiation filter -- Summary of differentiation results
5. Linear homeomorphic saccadic eye movement model -- Introduction -- Linear muscle model -- Length-tension curve -- Force-velocity relationship -- Linear homeomorphic saccadic eye movement model
Bibliography -- Author's biography
Summary There are five different types of eye movements: saccades, smooth pursuit, vestibular ocular eye movements, optokinetic eye movements, and vergence eye movements. The purpose of this book is focused primarily on mathematical models of the horizontal saccadic eye movement system and the smooth pursuit system, rather than on how visual information is processed. A saccade is a fast eye movement used to acquire a target by placing the image of the target on the fovea. Smooth pursuit is a slow eye movement used to track a target as it moves by keeping the target on the fovea. The vestibular ocular movement is used to keep the eyes on a target during brief head movements. The optokinetic eye movement is a combination of saccadic and slow eye movements that keeps a full-field image stable on the retina during sustained head rotation. Each of these movements is a conjugate eye movement, that is, movements of both eyes together driven by a common neural source. A vergence movement is a non-conjugate eye movement allowing the eyes to track targets as they come closer or farther away. In this book, early models of saccades and smooth pursuit are presented. The smooth pursuit system allows tracking of a slow moving target to maintain its position on the fovea. Models of the smooth pursuit have been developed using systems control theory, all involving a negative feedback control system that includes a time delay, controller and plant in the forward loop, with unity feedback. The oculomotor plant and saccade generator are the basic elements of the saccadic system. The oculomotor plant consists of three muscle pairs and the eyeball. A number of oculomotor plant models are described here beginning with the Westheimer model published in 1954, and up through our 1995 model involving a 4th order oculomotor plant model. The work presented here is not an exhaustive coverage of the field, but focused on the interests of the author. In Part II, a state-of-art model of the saccade system is presented, including a neural network that controls the system
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 137-149)
Notes English
Subject Eye -- Movements -- Mathematical models
Saccadic eye movements -- Mathematical models
Saccadic eye movements.
Mathematical models.
Models, Theoretical
Pursuit, Smooth
mathematical models.
MEDICAL -- Neuroscience.
PSYCHOLOGY -- Neuropsychology.
Saccadic eye movements
Mathematical models
Eye -- Movements -- Mathematical models
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9781608452330
Other Titles Early models of saccades and smooth pursuit