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Title Occupational ergonomics : engineering and administrative controls / edited by Waldemar Karwowski, William S. Marras
Published Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, ©2003
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Description 1 online resource (1 volume (various pagings)) : illustrations
Series Principles and applications in engineering series
Principles and applications in engineering.
Contents Front Cover -- The Editors -- Contributors -- Contents -- Preface -- Part I -- Musculoskeletal Disorders -- Section I -- Disorders of the Extremities -- Chapter 1 -- Epidemiology of Upper Extremity Disorders -- 1.1 Frequency, Rates, and Costs -- 1.2 Disorder Types and their Natural History -- 1.3 Individual Factors -- 1.4 Work-Related Factors -- 1.5 Summary -- Chapter 2 -- Integrated Analysis of Upper Extremity Disorders -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Site and Types of Upper Limb Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders -- 2.3 Risk Factors for Upper Limb Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders -- 2.4 Integrated Approach to Evaluate Potential for Upper Limb WMSD -- 2.5 Workplace Assessment Tools -- 2.6 Summary -- Chapter 3 -- Biomechanical Aspects of CTDs -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Anatomy of the Upper Extremity -- 3.3 Work-Related Muscle Disorders -- 3.4 Biomechanical Aspects of Muscle-Tendon Disorders -- 3.5 Work-Related CTDs Involving the Muscle-Tendon Unit -- 3.6 Biomechanical Aspects of Nerve Compression Disorders -- 3.7 Work-Related CTDs Involving the Nerve -- 3.8 Summary -- Chapter 4 -- Occupational Risk Factors for Shoulder Disorders -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Structure and Function of the Shoulder -- 4.3 Occupational Risk Factors -- Chapter 5 -- Hand Tools: Design and Evaluation -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Power Tool Triggers and Grip Force -- 5.3 Handle Size and Grip Force -- 5.4 Static Hand Force -- 5.5 Dynamic Reaction Force -- 5.6 Vibration -- Chapter 6 -- Gloves -- 6.1 Importance of the Hand -- 6.2 Prehensile Capabilities of the Hand -- 6.3 Need for Protection of the Hand -- 6.4 Types of Gloves -- 6.5 Glove Effect on Strength -- 6.6 Glove Effect on Dexterity -- 6.7 Glove Effect on Tactility -- 6.8 Liners -- 6.9 Glove Attributes -- 6.10 Challenges of Glove Design -- 6.11 Glove Evaluation Protocol -- 6.12 Glove Standards -- 6.13 Conclusion
13.3 Have Biomechanical Spine Model Outputs Been Shown to Be Related to Injury Risk? -- 13.4 Are All Spine Models the Same? -- 13.5 Have Spine Models Been Validated? -- 13.6 How Much Anatomical Detail in the Model is Necessary for Adequate Content Validity? -- 13.7 Is a Model Needed that Will Allow Dynamic Analysis of Tasks or Are Static Models Acceptable? -- 13.8 Are Single Plane (2-D) Models Useful or Must 3-Dimensional Analyses Always be Performed? -- 13.9 A Simple 2-Dimensional, Quasidynamic Model for Risk Assessment and Job Design (2DWATBAK) -- 13.10 If a 3-Dimensional Model is Needed, How Does the Model Estimate Forces on Joints and How Are They Interpreted: An Example of a 3-Dimensional Industrial Risk Assessment Model (3DWATBAK) -- 13.11 Are There Any Spine Models that Reflect the Effects of Prolonged Loading? -- Chapter 14 -- Quantitative Assessment of Trunk Performance -- 14.1 Introduction -- 14.2 Principles -- 14.3 Low Back Pain and Trunk Performance -- 14.4 Clinical Applications -- 14.5 Conclusions -- Chapter 15 -- Perspective on Industrial Low Back Pain -- 15.1 Introduction -- 15.2 An Ergonomics and Injury Evaluation System -- 15.3 Case Study -- 15.4 Conclusions -- Chapter 16 -- Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation -- 16.1 Introduction -- 16.2 Definition of Terms -- 16.3 Limitations of Equation -- 16.4 Obtaining and Using the Data -- 16.5 Procedures -- 16.6 Applying the Equations -- Chapter 17 -- A Population-Based Load Threshold Limit (LTL) for Manual Lifting Tasks Performed by Males and Females -- 17.1 Introduction -- 17.2 Threshold RWL Values -- 17.3 The 1991 Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation -- 17.4 Computer Simulation of the NIOSH (1991) Lifting Equation -- 17.5 Summary of Simulated Characteristics of Lifting Factors and Multipliers -- 17.6 Results of Simulation: Threshold Values of RWL
17.7 Development of the Population-Based Design Load Threshold Limits -- 17.8 The LTL Model Application -- Chapter 18 -- Occupational Low Back Disorder Risk Assessment Using the Lumbar Motion Monitor -- 18.1 Background -- 18.2 Development of the Lumbar Motion Monitor -- 18.3 Benefits of the LMM and the LBD Risk Model -- 18.4 Applications: How to Use the LMM and LBD Risk Model -- Chapter 19 -- Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders: Psychophysical Basis -- 19.1 Introduction -- 19.2 The Psychophysical Approach to Designing Manual Materials Handling Tasks -- 19.3 The Psychophysical Approach to Designing Upper Extremity Tasks -- 19.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Psychophysical Approach -- 19.5 Conclusions -- Chapter 20 -- The Relative Importance of Biomechanical and Psychosocial Factors in Low Back Injuries -- 20.1 Introduction -- 20.2 Background -- 20.3 Spinal Damage -- 20.4 Injury, Recurrence, and Work Loss -- 20.5 Effectiveness of Ergonomic Intervention -- 20.6 Concluding Remarks -- 20.7 Summary -- Chapter 21 -- Fall-Related Occupational Injuries -- 21.1 Introduction -- 21.2 General Considerations -- 21.3 Epidemiology -- 21.4 Biomechanics -- 21.5 Prevention -- Chapter 22 -- Low Back Pain (LBP) Glossary: A Reference for Engineers and Ergonomists -- 22.1 Foreword -- 22.2 Introduction -- 22.3 Terms and Definitions -- Part II -- Administrative Controls -- Section I -- Ergonomics Surveillance -- Chapter 23 -- Fundamentals of Surveillance for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders -- 23.1 Introduction -- 23.2 Collecting, Analyzing, Intervening -- 23.3 Data Sources -- 23.4 Conclusions -- Chapter 24 -- Injury Surveillance Database Systems -- 24.1 Introduction -- 24.2 Injury Surveillance -- 24.3 Sources of Primary Injury Surveillance Data -- 24.4 Benefits of an Injury Surveillance Database System -- 24.5 Ergonomics and Injury Surveillance
24.6 Early Databases -- 24.7 Defining the Database Model -- 24.8 Statistical Treatment of Data -- 24.9 Choosing a Commercial Injury Surveillance Database -- 24.10 Summary -- Chapter 25 -- OSHA Recordkeeping -- 25.1 Introduction -- 25.2 Who Must Keep Records -- 25.3 Which Employers Do Not Have to Keep Records -- 25.4 What is An Employer? An Employee? -- 25.5 What Records Have to be Kept, Should be Kept? -- 25.6 Posting Requirements -- 25.7 Essential Definitions and Concepts for Recordkeeping -- 25.8 Recording Data on OSHA Forms -- 25.9 Proposed Changes in OSHA Recordkeeping -- 25.10 Specific Changes in Recordkeeping Requirements -- 25.11 Summary and Conclusions -- Chapter 26 -- Body Discomfort Assessment Tools -- 26.1 Overview -- 26.2 Fundamental Concepts -- 26.3 Application -- Examples of Discomfort Tools Used in Ergonomics -- 26.4 Conclusion and Recommendations -- Section II -- Medical Management Prevention -- Chapter 27 -- Medical Management of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders -- 27.1 Introduction -- 27.2 Terminology -- 27.3 Selection of a Health Care Provider (HCP) -- 27.4 Early Reporting of Symptoms and Access to Health Care Providers -- 27.5 Health Care Providers Familiarity with Employee's Job -- 27.6 Evaluation of the Employee -- 27.7 Treatment of the Employee -- 27.8 Follow-up and Return to Work -- 27.9 Screening -- 27.10 Conclusion -- Chapter 28 -- Ergonomic Programs in Post-Injury Management -- 28.1 Introduction -- 28.2 Workplace Injuries -- 28.3 Ergonomics Disorders -- 28.4 Causes of Workplace Injuries/Illnesses -- 28.5 Prevention of Workplace Injuries -- The Ergonomic Approach -- 28.6 Primary Prevention of Workplace Injuries -- 28.7 Post-Injury Management -- Prevention of Disability -- 28.8 Ergonomic Interventions in Post-Injury Management -- 28.9 Evaluation of Physical, Functional, and Work Capacities
Chapter 7 -- Industrial Mats -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Psychophysical Approach -- 7.3 Physiological Approach -- 7.4 Postural Approach -- 7.5 Biomechanical Approach -- 7.6 Characteristics of Tested Mats -- 7.7 A Standardized Protocol -- 7.8 Foot Wear Conditions -- 7.9 Suggestions for the Ergonomist -- Chapter 8 -- Ergonomic Principles Applied to the Prevention of Injuries to the Lower Extremity -- 8.1 Lower Extremity Injuries: Is There an Occupational Problem? -- 8.2 Preventing Injury: Types of Ergonomic Controls -- 8.3 Summary -- Chapter 9 -- Ergonomics of the Foot -- 9.1 Foot/Leg -- 9.2 Activities of the Foot -- 9.3 Accidents -- 9.4 Fatigue/Comfort -- 9.5 Foot Controls -- Section II -- Low Back Disorders -- Chapter 10 -- Epidemiology of Back Pain in Industry -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 The Magnitude of the Problem -- 10.3 National Studies -- 10.4 Cross-Sectional Studies -- 10.5 Occupational Risk Factors -- Chapter 11 -- Static Biomechanical Modeling in Manual Lifting -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Development of Static Strength Prediction Programs -- 11.3 Computerization of Strength Prediction and Back Force Prediction Models -- 11.4 Validation of Strength and Back Force Prediction Models -- 11.5 Final Comments -- Chapter 12 -- Dynamic Low Back Models: Theory and Relevance in Assisting the Ergonomist to Reduce the Risk of Low Back Injury -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Issues Relevant for Complex Model Interpretation -- 12.3 Application of Complex Dynamic Models to Reduce the Risk of Low Back Injury -- 12.4 Tentative Risk Reduction Guidelines for Occupational Injury -- 12.5 Future Directions -- Chapter 13 -- Selection of 2-D and 3-D Biomechanical Spine Models: Issues for Consideration by the Ergonomist -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 The Biomechanical Approach to Assessment and Reduction of Risk of Back Injury
Summary "Occupational Ergonomics: Engineering and Administrative Controls focuses on prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on engineering and administrative controls. Section I provides knowledge about risk factors for upper and lower extremities at work, while Section II concentrates on risk factors for work-related low back disorders. Section III discusses fundamentals of surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders, requirements for surveillance database systems, OSHA Record keeping system, and surveillance methods based on the assessment of body discomfort. Section IV focuses on medical management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, including programs for post-injury management, testing of physical ability for employment decisions, assessment of worker strength and other functional capacities, and applications of ergonomics knowledge in rehabilitation."--ERGONOMICSnetBASE description
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject Human engineering.
Industrial hygiene.
Musculoskeletal system -- Wounds and injuries -- Prevention
Human engineering.
Industrial hygiene.
Musculoskeletal system -- Wounds and injuries -- Prevention.
Form Electronic book
Author Karwowski, Waldemar, 1953-
Marras, William S. (William Steven), 1952-
ISBN 0203507932
0849318009
9780203507933
9780849318009