Limit search to available items
Book Cover
Author Jacobs, Noortje, author

Title Ethics by committee : a history of reasoning together about medicine, science, society, and the state / Noortje Jacobs
Published Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 2022


Description 1 online resource (305 p.)
Contents Frontmatter -- Contents -- Abbreviations -- Note on Translations -- Introduction -- Part I Internal Control -- Chapter 1 A Moral Obligation to Medical Progress -- Chapter 2 A Moral Need for Epistemic Filters -- Part II External Control -- Chapter 3 Medical Ethics in a Modern Society -- Chapter 4 Experimenting with Humans -- Part III Public Accountability -- Chapter 5 The Contested Rise of the Ethical Expert -- Chapter 6 Public Governance in a Pluralistic Society -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index
Summary How liberal democracies in the late twentieth century have sought to resolve public concerns over charged issues in medicine and science. Ethics boards have become obligatory passage points in today's medical science, and we forget how novel they really are. The use of humans in experiments is an age-old practice that records show goes back to at least the third century BC, and it has been popular as a practice since the early modern period. Yet in most countries around the world, hardly any formal checks and balances existed to govern the communal oversight of experiments involving human subjects until at least the 1960s. Ethics by Committee traces the rise of ethics boards for human experimentation in the second half of the twentieth century. Using the Netherlands as a case study, historian Noortje Jacobs shows how the authority of physicians to make decisions about clinical research in this period gave way in most developed nations to formal mechanisms of communal decision-making that served to regiment the behavior of individual researchers. This historically unprecedented change in scientific governance came out of the growing international wariness of medical research in the decades after World War II and was meant to solidify a new way of reasoning together in liberal democracies about medicine and science. But what reasoning together meant, and who was invited to participate, changed drastically over time. In detailing this history, Jacobs shows that research ethics committees were originally intended not only to make human experimentation more ethical but also to raise its epistemic quality and intensify the use of new clinical research methods. By examining complex negotiations over the appropriate governance of human subjects research, Ethics by Committee is an important contribution to our understanding of the randomized controlled trial and the history of research ethics and bioethics more generally
Notes Description based upon print version of record
Subject Human experimentation in medicine -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century
Institutional review boards (Medicine) -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century
Medical ethics committees -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century
Medical ethics -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century
Medicine -- Research -- Government policy -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century
Medicine -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects
MEDICAL / General.
Human experimentation in medicine
Institutional review boards (Medicine)
Medical ethics
Medical ethics committees
Medicine -- Research -- Government policy
Medicine -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects
Ethics & moral philosophy.
Medicine: general issues.
Medical ethics & professional conduct.
Genre/Form History
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9780226819310