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Genes, Homeotic -- See Genes, Homeobox


Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS
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Genes, Hox -- See Genes, Homeobox


Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS
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Genes, Hypostatic -- See Epistasis, Genetic


A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes
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Genes, Immediate-Early -- genetics : Immediate early genes in sensory processing, cognitive performance, and neurological disorders / edited by Raphael Pinaud and Liisa A. Tremere  2006 1
  Genes, Immunoglobulin -- 2 Related Subjects   2
Genes, Immunoglobulin : Comparative Immunoglobulin Genetics  2014 1
 

Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain -- See Also Immunoglobulin Light Chains


Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule
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Genes, Insect -- See Also Genome, Insect


The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA
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Genes, Insect. : Insect biodiversity : science and society / edited by Dr. Robert G. Foottit, Professor Peter H. Adler  2017- 1
 

GĂȘnes (Italy) -- See Genoa (Italy)


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Genes, Jumping -- See Interspersed Repetitive Sequences


Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another
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Genes -- Juvenile fiction. : The Rapture / Catherine Jinks  2001 1
Genes -- Juvenile literature.   2
 

Genes, Ki-ras -- See Genes, ras


Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein
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Genes, L-myc -- See Genes, myc


Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8
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Genes, Lac -- See Lac Operon


The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase
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Genes, LacZ -- See Lac Operon


The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase
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Genes, Mating Type, Fungal. : Sex in fungi : molecular determination and evolutionary implications / edited by Joseph Heitman, James W. Kronstad, John W. Taylor, Lorna A. Casselton  2007 1
  Genes, MDR -- 2 Related Subjects   2
 

Genes, Metastasis Suppressor -- See Genes, Tumor Suppressor


Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible
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Genes, MHC Class I -- See Also Histocompatibility Antigens Class I


Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells
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Genes, MHC Class II -- See Also Histocompatibility Antigens Class II


Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen
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Genes -- Miscellanea : Genes, development, and cancer : the life and work of Edward B. Lewis / edited with commentary by Howard D. Lipshitz  2007 1
 

Genes, Mitochondrial -- See Also DNA, Mitochondrial


Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins
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Genes, Mitochondrial.   2
  Genes, Modifier -- 4 Related Subjects   4
 

Genes, myc -- See Also Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc


Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis
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Genes, myc : The Myc/Max/Mad transcription factor network / R.N. Eisenmann (ed.)  2006 1
 

Genes, N-myc -- See Genes, myc


Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8
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Genes, N-ras -- See Genes, ras


Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein
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Genes, Neoplasm -- See Also Neoplasm Proteins


Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm
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Genes, Neoplasm.   6
Genes, Neoplasm -- genetics : Mutant p53 and MDM2 in cancer / Swati Palit Deb, Sumitra Deb, editor  2014 1
Genes, Neoplasm -- physiology : Cancer systems biology / edited by Edwin Wang  2010 1
 

Genes, neu -- See Genes, erbB-2


The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2
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Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1 -- See Also Neurofibromatosis 1


An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS)
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Genes, nf 2 -- See Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2


Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2
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Genes, nf2 -- See Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2


Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2
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Genes, Onco-Suppressor -- See Genes, Tumor Suppressor


Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible
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Genes, Overlapping : Information- and communication theory in molecular biology / Martin Bossert, editor  2018 1
 

Genes, p53 -- See Also Tumor Suppressor Protein p53


Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER
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Genes, p53   5
Genes, p53 -- genetics. : DNA research, genetics, and cell biology / editor, Tsisana Shartava  2011 1
Genes, p53 -- physiology : 25 years of p53 research / edited by Pierre Hainaut and Klas G. Wiman  2005 1
Genes -- Patents   9
Genes -- Patents -- Moral and ethical aspects : Body corporate : who owns your genes? / produced by Wayne Harley  2011 1
Genes -- Periodicals   6
Genes -- Philosophy. : Genes : a philosophical inquiry / Gordon Graham  2002 1
Genes -- physiology.   5
 

Genes, Plant -- See Also Genome, Plant


The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA
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