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Book Cover
Author Roig, Benoit.

Title Pharmaceuticals in the environment : Current knowledge and need assessment to reduce presence and impact / edited by Benoit Roig
Edition Second edition
Published London : IWA Publishing, 2010


Location Call no. Vol. Availability
 W'BOOL  363.738 Roi/Pit 2010  AVAILABLE
Description xvii, 198 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm
Series European Commission Community Research ; project no. 036864
European Commission Community Research ; EU project no. 036864
Contents Contents note continued: 3.3.Modelling Toxicity -- References -- ch. 4 Real situation: occurrence of the main investigated PPs in water bodies -- 4.1.Introduction -- 4.2.Literature Study on PPS -- 4.2.1.Consumption -- 4.2.2.Exposure -- 4.3.Results and Discussion -- 4.3.1.Predicted Environmental Concentrations -- 4.3.2.Indicator pharmaceuticals -- 4.3.3.Data Gaps -- 4.4.Conclusions and Outlook -- References -- ch. 5 Performance of conventional treatment processes of the most resistant PPs -- 5.1.Introduction -- 5.2.Antibiotics -- 5.2.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.2.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.2.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.2.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.2.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.3.Anticonvulsants -- 5.3.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.3.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.3.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.3.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.3.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.4.Antiinflammatories (Analgesics) -- 5.4.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) --
Contents note continued: 5.4.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.4.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.4.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.4.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.5.β-Blockers -- 5.5.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.5.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.5.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.5.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.6.Hormones -- 5.6.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.6.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.6.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.6.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.6.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.7.Tranquilizers -- 5.7.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.7.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.7.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.7.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.7.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.8.X-Ray Contrast Media (CM) -- 5.8.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.8.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) -- 5.8.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.8.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.8.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.9.Lipid Regulators -- 5.9.1.Sludge Retention Time (SRT) -- 5.9.2.Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) --
Contents note continued: 5.9.3.Reactor configuration -- 5.9.4.Sludge adsorption -- 5.9.5.Advanced technologies -- 5.10.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 6 Biological monitoring and endpoints -- 6.1.Introduction -- 6.2.Data Availability and Distribution -- 6.3.Traditional Ecotoxicity Studies -- 6.4.Limitations of Traditional Ecotoxicity Studies -- 6.4.1.Validity of chronic and acute data -- 6.4.2.Effects of mixtures -- 6.4.3.Can the effects of pharmaceuticals be predicted using qsars or acute/chronic ratios? -- 6.4.4.Do metabolites pose a risk? -- 6.5.Non Traditional Endpoints -- 6.5.1.What are the limitations of the standardized test endpoints and methods? -- 6.5.2.Use of biomarkers as novel end points -- 6.6.The Use of Novel Approaches to the Rapid Identification of Pollution Incidents -- 6.7.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 7 Environmental risk assessment and prioritization strategies for human pharmaceuticals, review and discussion -- 7.1.Introduction --
Contents note continued: 7.2.Review of Environmental Risk Assessment and Prioritization Strategies for Human Pharmaceuticals in Different Countries -- 7.2.1.Denmark -- 7.2.2.United Kingdom -- 7.2.3.Germany -- 7.2.4.Italy -- 7.2.5.Sweden -- 7.2.6.United states -- 7.2.7.Swiss -- 7.2.8.France -- 7.2.9.Sum up and compilation of data -- 7.3.Example of Prioritization Strategy -- 7.3.1.Exposure assessment -- 7.3.2.Effect assessment -- 7.3.3.Results and discussion -- 7.4.Discussion -- 7.4.1.Exposure assessment -- of PEC calculation for surface water with field measurements --, uncertainties and limitations in the exposure assessment for surface water -- of PEC for other compartments (sludge and sediment) -- of calculated and modelled values to assess the environmental behaviour of pharmaceuticals -- 7.4.2.Effect assessment -- data -- criteria -- to bioaccumulate --
Contents note continued: data -- approaches -- 7.5.Conclusion -- References -- ch. 8 Recommendations on research and development -- 8.1.Introduction -- 8.2.Designing ̀Greener' Pharmaceutical Products -- 8.2.1.Towards greener drugs -- "greener" drugs -- the eco-compatibility of pharmaceutical products -- 8.3.Ecological Pharmacovigilance -- 8.3.1.Monitoring strategies and scenarios for newly registered, existing and high risk medicines -- 8.3.2.Removal and/or transformation of medicines in sewage treatment plants -- 8.3.3.Hospital wastewater -- 8.3.4.Urine separation -- 8.3.5.Spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of pharmaceutical products in the aquatic environment -- affecting spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals -- of Indicators of input of pharmaceutical products into surface and ground waters --
Contents note continued: 8.3.6.Assessment of possible movement of pharmaceutical products from landfill and following agricultural applications of sludge and manure -- 8.3.7.Fate and distribution of medicines in river, estuarine and marine environments -- 8.3.8.Protection of drinking water -- 8.3.9.Assessment of the impact of pharmaceuticals on biota -- 8.3.10.Estimation of total load of pharmaceutical products in the aquatic environment at local, river basin levels -- 8.3.11.Estimation of fraction of pharmaceutical products associated with suspended matter/sludge and risk posed following land application -- 8.4.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 9 Recommendations on Communication and Education -- 9.1.Introduction -- 9.2.Lessons Learned From Existing Initiatives -- 9.2.1.Classification and labelling schemes for pharmaceuticals: The Swedish example -- "Stockholm model" -- "Swedish model" -- 9.2.2.Drug take-back schemes -- -- --
Contents note continued: 9.3.Recommendations Going Beyond Existing Initiatives: Approaches to Communicating Methods of "Good Practice" -- 9.3.1.Informing the public -- 9.3.2.Ecolabels for pharmaceuticals -- 9.3.3.Involvement of producers and distributors -- 9.3.4.Professional training - Taking up the subject in schools
Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Introduction -- 1.1.Pharmaceutical in the Environment: Background -- 1.2.Objectives of this Book -- 1.3.Chapter Content -- References -- ch. 2 Policy framework at EU level -- 2.1.Introduction -- 2.2.Policy Framework at Eu Level -- 2.2.1.Medicinal regulations & policies -- authorisation and environment risk assessment -- take-back schemes -- 2.2.2.Environmental protection regulations & policies -- policies -- environmental policies and initiatives -- 2.3.Discussion of Current Policy Instruments -- 2.3.1.Policy framework in the light of the precautionary and prevention principles -- 2.3.2.Policy framework and end-of-pipe solutions -- 2.3.3.What complicates further EU policy development to limit discharge of PPs into waters? -- References -- ch. 3 Exposure based on life cycle -- 3.1.Exposure Routes -- 3.2.Modelling of Expected Concentrations in Various Matrices --
Analysis Environmental impact
Government regulation
Hazardous chemicals
International comparisons
Marine environments
Overseas item
River systems
Sewage treatment
Notes "EU project number: 036864."--P. [4] of cover
"European Commission community research."--Cover
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Subject Drugs -- Environmental aspects -- Europe.
Emerging contaminants in water -- Europe.
Environmental Pollution -- adverse effects.
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions.
Biodegradation, Environmental -- drug effects.
Environmental Monitoring.
Risk Assessment.
Author Roig, Benoit.
European Commission.
LC no. 2012554691
ISBN 184339314X (paperback)
9781843393146 (paperback)