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Book Cover
E-book
Author Kloprogge, J. Theo.

Title Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of the Cationic Clay Minerals
Published Saint Louis Elsevier, 2017
©2017
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Description 1 online resource (622 pages)
Series Developments in Clay Science Ser. ; v.Volume 8
Developments in Clay Science Ser
Contents "Front Cover" -- "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies of Clay Minerals" -- "Copyright" -- "Dedication" -- "Contents" -- "Contributors" -- "Acknowledgements" -- "Chapter 1: General Introduction" -- "1.1. Origin and Content of the Book" -- "1.2. Victor Colin Farmer (1920-2006)" -- "1.3. Perspectives and Concluding Remarks" -- "Chapter 2: Theoretical Aspects of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies" -- "2.1. Introduction" -- "2.2. Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation" -- "2.2.1. Classical Model of Crystal Vibrations" -- "2.2.2. Categorisation and Symmetry of Vibrational Modes" -- "2.2.3. Relation to the Quantum Mechanical Description of Vibrational Properties" -- "2.2.4. Anharmonic Vibrational Properties" -- "2.3. Probing the Vibrational Modes with IR Light" -- "2.3.1. Drude-Lorentz Model Applied to IR Spectroscopy" -- "2.3.2. Low-Frequency Dielectric Permittivity Tensor of a Crystal and Born Effective Charge Tensors" -- "2.3.3. IR Spectroscopy of Powder Materials" -- "2.3.3.1. Light Reflection and Transmission by an Isotropic Dielectric Slab" -- "2.3.3.1.1. IR Absorption by Isolated Small Particles in a Nonabsorbing Matrix" -- "2.3.3.1.2. Effective Dielectric Functions of Composite Samples" -- "2.3.3.2. Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (IES)" -- "2.4. Raman Spectroscopy" -- "2.5. Modeling of Vibrational Spectra from First Principles" -- "Chapter 3: Modern Infrared and Raman Instrumentation and Sampling Methods" -- "3.1. Introduction" -- "3.2. Instrumentation" -- "3.2.1. IR Spectroscopy" -- "3.2.2. Raman Spectroscopy" -- "3.2.3. IR and Raman Microscopies" -- "3.2.4. Portable and Miniature Instruments" -- "3.3. IR Sampling Techniques" -- "3.3.1. Transmission Through Dispersions in Transparent Media" -- "3.3.2. Transmission Through Thin Films" -- "3.3.3. External Specular Reflection"
"11.2.2.2. Intercalation of Urea in Halloysite" -- "11.2.2.3. Deintercalation of Urea from Halloysite and from Kaol" -- "11.2.3. Formamide" -- "11.2.3.1. Raman Non-coincidence" -- "11.2.3.2. Intercalation of Formamide in Kaol" -- "11.2.3.3. Deintercalation of Formamide from Kaol" -- "11.2.4. Acetamide" -- "11.2.4.1. Intercalation of Acetamide in Kaol" -- "11.3. Group B Molecules" -- "11.3.1. Dimethylsulphoxide, (CH3)2SO (DMSO) and Dimethylselenoxide, (CH3)2SeO (DMSeO)" -- "11.3.1.1. Intercalation of DMSO and DMSeO in Kaol" -- "11.3.1.2. Deintercalation of DMSO from Kaol" -- "11.4. Group C Molecules" -- "11.4.1. Potassium Acetate" -- "11.4.1.1. Intercalation of KAc in Kaol" -- "11.4.1.2. Deintercalation of KAc from Kaol" -- "11.4.2. Caesium Acetate" -- "11.5. Concluding Remarks" -- "Chapter 12: Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies of Pillared Clays" -- "12.1. Introduction" -- "12.2. Oligomers Salts" -- "12.2.1. Al13-Sulfate and Al13 Nitrate" -- "12.2.2. Ga13-Sulfate and Fe13-Sulfate" -- "12.2.3. Mixed (Al-Fe)13-Sulfate, (Al-Cr)13-Sulfate and (Al-Mn)13 Sulfate" -- "12.3. Al PILC" -- "12.3.1. Al13 Pillared Smectites with Tetrahedral Substitutions" -- "12.3.1.1. Al13-Pillared Beidellite" -- "12.3.1.2. Al13-Pillared Sap" -- "12.3.2. Al13 Pillared Smectites with Octahedral Substitutions" -- "12.3.2.1. Al13-Pillared Ht" -- "12.3.2.2. Al13-Pillared Mt and Al13-Pillared Acid Activated Mt" -- "12.4. Mixed (Al-Metal)13 PILC" -- "12.4.1. (Al-Fe)13-PILC" -- "12.4.2. (Al-Cr)13-PILC" -- "12.4.3. (Al-Zr)13-PILC" -- "12.4.4. (Al-Co)-PILC" -- "12.4.5. (Al-REE)-PILC" -- "12.5. Ti PILC and Mixed (Ti-Metal) PILC" -- "12.5.1. Ti-PMt" -- "12.5.2. Mixed (Ti-Metal) PILC" -- "12.5.3. Impregnated Ti-Metal-PILC" -- "12.5.3.1. Palladium (Pd)- and Chromium (Cr)-Impregnated Ti-Zr PILC" -- "12.5.3.2. Vanadium-Impregnated Ti PILC" -- "12.6. Fe-PILC and Mixed (Fe-Metal) PILC"
"3.3.4. Reflection-Absorption of Thin Films on Mirror Substrates" -- "3.3.5. Diffuse Reflectance MIR and NIR Spectroscopies" -- "3.3.6. IR Emission" -- "3.3.7. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy" -- "3.3.8. Internal Reflection IR and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy" -- "3.3.9. Combined Acquisition in the MIR and NIR" -- "3.4. Raman Sampling Techniques" -- "3.5. Epilogue" -- "Chapter 4: Spectral Manipulation and Introduction to Multivariate Analysis" -- "4.1. Introduction" -- "4.2. Overview of Postcollection Spectral Processing" -- "4.2.1. Smoothing" -- "4.2.2. Baseline Corrections" -- "4.2.3. Atmospheric Compensation" -- "4.2.4. Normalisation" -- "4.3. Identification and Separation of Overlapping Vibrational Transitions" -- "4.3.1. Decomposition of Overlapping Bands" -- "4.3.2. Derivative Analysis" -- "4.4. Multivariate Analysis and Chemometric Quantification" -- "4.4.1. Introduction to PCA and PLS" -- "4.4.2. Training (Calibration) and Property datasets" -- "4.4.3. Validation and Optimum Dimensionality" -- "4.4.4. PCA and PCR Chemometrics in the Study of Clay Minerals" -- "4.4.5. PLS Chemometrics for Clay Mineral Processing Applications" -- "4.5. Concluding Remarks" -- "Chapter 5: IR Spectra of Clay Minerals" -- "5.1. Introduction" -- "5.2. Experimental" -- "5.3. Characteristic Vibrations of Clay Minerals" -- "5.4. The 1:1 Clay Minerals" -- "5.4.1. Dioctahedral 1:1 Clay Minerals: The Kaolin Group" -- "5.4.2. Trioctahedral 1:1 Clay Minerals: The Serpentine Group" -- "5.5. The 2:1 Clay Minerals" -- "5.5.1. Pyrophyllite, Talc" -- "5.5.2. Smectites" -- "5.5.2.1. Dioctahedral Smectites" -- "5.5.2.2. Trioctahedral Smectites" -- "5.5.3. Vermiculite, Illite and Micas" -- "5.5.4. Chlorites" -- "5.6. Palygorskite, Sepiolite" -- "5.7. Conclusions" -- "Chapter 6: Raman Spectroscopy of Clay Minerals" -- "6.1. Introduction"
"6.2. Hydroxyl Stretching Region" -- "6.2.1. The 1:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.2.1.1. The Kaolin Group Minerals" -- "6.2.1.2. The Serpentine Group Minerals" -- "6.2.2. The 2:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.2.2.1. Pyrophyllite and Talc" -- "6.2.2.2. Smectites" -- "6.2.2.3. Vermiculite" -- "6.3. Theory of the Low Wavenumber Vibrational Modes" -- "6.3.1. The 1:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.3.2. The 2:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.4. The Vibrational Modes of the Tetrahedral and Octahedral Sheets in the Low-Wavenumber Region" -- "6.4.1. The 1:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.4.1.1. The Kaolin Group Minerals" -- "6.4.1.2. The Serpentine Group Minerals" -- "6.4.2. The 2:1 Clay Minerals" -- "6.4.2.1. Talc and Pyrophyllite" -- "6.4.2.2. Smectites" -- "6.4.2.3. Vermiculites" -- "6.4.3. Palygorskite and Sepiolite" -- "6.5. Concluding Remarks" -- "Chapter 7: Applications of NIR/MIR to Determine Site Occupancy in Smectites" -- "7.1. Introduction" -- "7.2. Octahedral Structures of Smectites" -- "7.2.1. Di- and Tri-octahedral Structures of Smectites" -- "7.2.2. Site Occupancy within a Ternary Fe-Al-Mg Field" -- "7.3. Effect of Chemistry on the Presence and Position of Bands" -- "7.3.1. Reduced Mass" -- "7.3.2. Bond Strength (Valence)" -- "7.3.3. Reduced Mass-Valence Sum" -- "7.3.4. Effects of Next Nearest Neighbour Isomorphic Substitution" -- "7.3.5. Ionic Radii Effects-A Generalised Approach" -- "7.4. Methods to Quantify Octahedral Occupancy from IR Spectra" -- "7.4.1. Band Decomposition" -- "7.4.2. Spectral (Second) Derivative" -- "7.4.3. Assigning Occupancies" -- "7.4.4. Comparison to Random Distributions" -- "7.5. Conclusions and Future Directions" -- "Chapter 8: Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy in Clay Minerals Synthesis" -- "8.1. Introduction" -- "8.2. Imogolite and Allophane" -- "8.3. 1:1 Clay Minerals" -- "8.3.1. Kaolinite" -- "8.3.2. The Serpentine Minerals" -- "8.4. 2:1 Clay Minerals"
"8.4.1. Trioctahedral Minerals" -- "8.4.1.1. Talc" -- "8.4.1.2. Hectorite" -- "8.4.1.3. Saponite" -- "8.4.2. Dioctahedral Minerals" -- "8.4.2.1. Pryophyllite" -- "8.4.2.2. Beidellite" -- "8.4.2.3. Nontronite and Ferrian-smectite" -- "8.4.2.4. Montmorillonite" -- "8.5. Vermiculite" -- "8.6. Chlorite" -- "8.7. Concluding Remarks" -- "Chapter 9: Infrared Studies of Clay Mineral-Water Interactions" -- "9.1. Introduction" -- "9.2. Molecular Probes and Reporter Groups" -- "9.3. Water Confined in Clay Mineral Interlayer Spaces" -- "9.3.1. Smectites and Vermiculites (Ion Dipole)" -- "9.3.1.1. Studies of Smectites and Vermiculites in the H2O Bending Region" -- "9.3.1.2. Studies of H2O in the H2O Stretching Region for Smectites and Vermiculites" -- "9.3.1.3. Vibrational Bands of the Clay Mineral that are Influenced by H2O" -- "9.3.2. Nanoconfined H2O: Sepiolite and Palygorskite" -- "9.3.3. Nanoconfined H2O: Halloysite and Imogolite" -- "9.3.4. Physisorbed H2O" -- "9.4. Clay Mineral-Water Interactions as Directors of Clay Mineral-Organic Adsorption Processes" -- "9.5. Conclusions" -- "Chapter 10: Analysis of Organoclays and Organic Adsorption by Clay Minerals" -- "10.1. Organoclay" -- "10.2. Basal Spacing of Organoclay" -- "10.3. FTIR of Organoclay Intercalates" -- "10.3.1. FTIR Spectrum of Surfactant in Organoclay" -- "10.3.2. FTIR of Clay Mineral in Organoclay" -- "10.4. In Situ XRD and FTIR of Organoclay" -- "10.5. FTIR of Organoclay With Adsorbed Organic Contaminants" -- "10.6. Concluding Comments and a Future Outlook" -- "Chapter 11: Raman and Infrared Spectroscopies of Intercalated Kaolinite Groups Minerals" -- "11.1. Introduction" -- "11.2. Group A Molecules" -- "11.2.1. Hydrazine" -- "11.2.1.1. Intercalation of Hydrazine in Kaol" -- "11.2.1.2. Deintercalation of Hydrazine from Kaol" -- "11.2.2. Urea" -- "11.2.2.1. Intercalation of Urea in Kaolinite"
Notes "12.6.1. Fe-PILC"
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Subject Clay -- Analysis.
Clay -- Analysis.
Form Electronic book
Author Bergaya, Faïza.
Gates, Will
Madejova, Jana
ISBN 0081003595
9780081003596