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Book Cover
Author Young, David B.

Title Control of cardiac output / David B. Young
Published San Rafael, CA : Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, ©2010


Description 1 online resource (1 PDF file (xii, 97 pages : illustrations))
Series Integrated systems physiology : from molecule to function ; lecture #6
Colloquium series on integrated systems physiology ; #6.
Contents Introduction -- Venous Return -- Cardiac Function -- Integrated Analysis of Cardiac Output Control -- Analysis of Cardiac Output Regulation by Computer Simulation -- Analysis of Cardiac Output Control in Response to Challenges -- Conclusion
Summary Although cardiac output is measured as the flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta, the system that controls cardiac output includes many other components besides the heart itself. The heart's rate of output cannot exceed the rate of venous return to it, and therefore, the factors governing venous return are primarily responsible for control of output from the heart. Venous return is affected by its pressure gradient and resistance to flow throughout the vascular system. The pressure gradient for venous return is a function of several factors including the blood volume flowing through the system, the unstressed vascular volume of the circulatory system, its capacitance, mean systemic pressure, and right atrial pressure. Resistance to venous return is the sum of total vascular resistance from the aortic valve to the right atrium. The sympathetic nervous system and vasoactive circulating hormones affect short-term resistance, whereas local tissue blood flow autoregulatory mechanisms are the dominant determinants of long-term resistance to venous return. The strength of contraction of the heart responds to changes in atrial pressure driven by changes in venous return, with small changes in atrial pressure eliciting large changes in strength of contraction, as described by the Frank-Starling mechanism. In addition, the autonomic nervous system input to the heart alters myocardial pumping ability in response to cardiovascular challenges. The function of the cardiovascular system is strongly affected by the operation of the renal sodium excretion-body fluid volume-arterial pressure negative feedback system that maintains arterial blood pressure at a controlled value over long periods. The intent of this volume is to integrate the basic knowledge of these cardiovascular system components into an understanding of cardiac output regulation
Analysis Blood flow autoregulation
Blood volume
Circulatory shock
Heart failure
Mean systemic pressure
Myocardial contractility
Pressure gradient for venous return
Vascular capacitance
Vascular resistance
Venous return
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Notes English
Subject Cardiac output.
Cardiac Output -- physiology
Vascular Resistance -- physiology
Heart -- physiology
Cardiac Output
MEDICAL -- Physiology.
SCIENCE -- Life Sciences -- Human Anatomy & Physiology.
Cardiac output.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9781615040223
Other Titles Colloquium digital library of life sciences: Collection 1
NCBI Bookshelf